Arab/BelajarRW/penyambungan

Daripada Wikibooks
Pergi ke navigasi Pergi ke carian

Huruf penyambung dan huruf bukan penyambung[sunting]

Setiap perkataan mengandungi huruf yang berbeza

  • Huruf dikategorikan kepada dua kumpulan:
    • Huruf penyambung
    • Huruf bukan penyambung
  • Setiap huruf penyambung akan menyambungkan setiap huruf selepas mereka diadalam ayat.
Contoh
ب + ت  ←  بـ ـت  ←  بـت
Perasankah anda bahawa ب (baa) menyambung huruf selepasnya.Ini disebabkan baa merupakan huruf penyambung dan bukan kerana hanya terdapat satu huruf selepasnya.
Contoh lain
ه + ت + م  ←  هـ ـتـ ـم  ←  هـتـم

Perasankah anda bahawa ه bersambung dengan ت dan ت dan ia turut bersambung dengan م .

Contoh diatas turut menunjukkan bagaimana huruf berubah bentuk kerana penyambungan.

Contoh
ه (haa-huruf asal) menjadi هـ (haa-bentuk permulaan), mereka merupakan huruf yang sama , tapi berlainan bentuk, jadi mereka boleh ditulis bersama. Tapi bagaimanakah caranya untuk mengetahui cara penyambungan?

Huruf penyambung sahaja[sunting]

Ketika satu perkataan mempunyai huruf penyambung, maka kita perlu melakukan...

  • Huruf pertama menggunakan bentuk permulaan
  • Huruf akhir menggunakan bentuk pengakhiran
  • Dan huruf-huruf lain menggunaan bentuk pertengahan
Contoh
Jadi sekiranya kamu perlu menyambungkan 5 huruf ت (taa) bersama...
ت + ت + ت + ت + ت
...maka huruf pertama akan berubah mengikut bentuk permulaan (cth. تـ ),

dan huruf akhir akan menggunakan bentuk pengakhiran (cth. ـت). Jadi:

تـ + ... + ـت
All other letters would be in the middle form (i.e. ـتـ ).
ت + ت + ت + ت + ت  ←  تـ ـتـ ـتـ ـتـ ـت  ←  تــتــتــتــت
Another example
How to write: ب + ه + م  ?
بـ  ←  (baa initial form)  ←  ب
ـهـ  ←  (haa middle form)  ←  ه
ـم  ←  (meem final form)  ←  م
So the word becomes:
ب + ه + م  ←  بـ ـهـ ـم  ←  بـهـم
That is how it looks when it is all connected properly. That is how Arabic words are written.

With non-connectors[sunting]

The non-connector letters are: ا د ذ ر ز و

  • Non-connectors only have 2 forms
    1. Being connected - used if the previous letter is a connector
    2. Unconnected - used otherwise (if the previous letter is a non-connector, or if there is no previous letter)
  • Because non-connectors do not connect to letters after them they create breaks in words.

In the next examples, an ampersand (this symbol &) will be used to show where one letter does not connect to the next one (where the breaks are) in the following example. The breaks always occur directly after the non-connector.

Example
Write in Arabian script: b-b-b-r-b-b
ب + ب + ب + ر + ب + ب
First find out where the break is:
ب + ب + ب + ر & ب + ب
Let's do the first part (the part on the right of the ampersand "&"). We know that the first letter ب (baa) should be in the initial form. The last letter is a non-connector. Which form should it be in? Because the letter before it is a connector, this letter ر (raa) should be in connected form:
ب + ب + ب + ر  ←  بـ ـبـ ـبـ ـر  ←  بـبـبـر
This was only the first written part of the word. We have to do the part after the non-connector letter.
ب + ب  ←  بـ ـب  ←  بـب
Now we have to have the parts side by side to make the word.
بـبـبـربـب
Technical note: Although there is a break between the letter ر (raa) and the next letter when it is written by hand, when one word in Arabic is typed the space bar is never touched. The letters automatically get connected properly by the computer.
Another example
Now let's do an actual Arabic word.
ت + ر + ك
First find out where the breaks are:
ت + ر & ك
In the first part, we see that the first letter is a connector and it is not the only letter, so we know automatically that it should be in initial form. We noticed that ر is a non-connector. The letter before it (i.e. ت ) is a connector, so ر should be written in connected form.
ت + ر  ←  تـ + ـر  ←  تر
The second part is just one letter so it should be written in single form which it already has:
ك  ←  ك
Put them side by side.
ترك   (transliteration: t-r-k)
This is an Arabic word meaning: he left (something). It is pronounced (ta-re-ka).

With practice, you will be able to write better and better. In the near future, some exercises will be added.